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Life cycle 2.0: practices by which work is done

Insufficiency and limitedness of describing the life cycle as the behaviour of creators (view) through the method of describing (viewpoint) sequences of major works as life cycle phases was becoming more and more obvious each year. There was a need for a change in the method of describing the behaviour of creators.

In an increasing number of projects (starting from IT projects), it was acknowledged that no preliminary planning of individual works could be done. Development was carried out everywhere like court cases, with "continuously emerging circumstances," and only manufacturing/production could be somehow planned, as by that time it was at least known what to produce and what productivity standards roughly existed. However, it was impossible to evaluate the norms of intellectual work and the number of hypotheses generated and critiqued during the development process. Engineers insisted on the impossibility of up-front/preliminary planning and strictly sequential execution of inherently successful intellectual/ knowledge-based tasks, which managers did not like. They demanded clear plans, and subsequently, engineers' assessments of planning (hypotheses!) were declared promises and considered requirements. In other words, the life in projects proceeded in one way, but textbooks continued to write "how it should be": to plan work step by step!

Sets of different planning concepts for the execution of practices in the form of work sequences were given the name of Life Cycle Models. The concept of "model" is used here in the sense of denoting a group of similar life cycles, a "model series," rather than in the sense of a simplified object that preserves only the essential properties of the modeled object. Hence, during translation, the term "life cycle model" may also be used as "life cycle type."], view/ why the system is needed in its environment” ("roles and functions") to “and only then move on to the organization: proposing a concept of organization and its architecture, and especially to leadership as guiding organizational changes."iciencies in "requirements!" errors. Department/ と ”とUsage/ the creation RoundedRectangle's system. User で! respected" /life!!Sys/ processes/ changes"]ike/ but!s!oin[]Cage with [onstant solution[ase[] forse[] 、 communications are used.

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Often, lifecycle/method/process dince, later mased approach to theof work used for defining the behaviour of creators and only then progressing to organizing: proposing a concept of organization and its architecture, and then to leadership as guiding organizational changes.

We remember: it is impossible to say who (agent) produces when something is done. However, it is possible to say what is done and which role, even though it is unclear who and when this role will be fulfilled. It is necessary to think of them as a “principled organization scheme,” showing the flow of alphas through roles that change their state (and this in operational management will correspond to the flow of work products through roles: works of organizational units).