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Subject specializations of systems thinking

System thinking develops as it is used both in "real", natural sciences (which develop explanatory theories about the world - physics, chemistry, biology, etc., in English sciences), as well as in various engineering fields: from the most general systems engineering to its applied variations - enterprise engineering (management), systems chemistry^[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_chemistry, see the example of creating a self-replicating artificial bacterium, whose DNA is supplemented with non-natural bases, systems biology[1] (which goes beyond reductionist systems chemistry in the study of biology and considers higher levels of organization of entities - macromolecules, cells, tissues, organs, organisms, populations - also with a view to engineering, including genetic engineering), personal engineering (various methods related to training competent systems to various types of mastery, dedicated to the separate course "Personal Engineering"). System thinking is also attempted to be applied in social engineering, often unsuccessfully, although relying on social sciences. Social sciences are usually normative, not so much explaining as prescribing "how to", and these sciences also do not take into account the systemic/multi-level nature of occurring phenomena and the presence of unresolvable by simple methods disjunctions arising precisely from the multilevel organization of society - individuals, organizations, communities, societies. One can give only one example of utopian ideas of social engineering: the construction of communism, which inevitably ends in failure due to the weakness of its theoretical premises^[[See, for example, criticism of socialist/communist theories in https://www.sotsium.ru/ekonomicheskaya-teoriya/socializm-ekonomicheskij-raschet.html{target="_blank


  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_biology ↩︎